IoT – Internet of Things

Intelligence of mankind can go beyond anything where I could not believe what have the man invented, the internet is like a substance that the mankind could not live without hence we get uncountable benefits from it. Through so many information technology developments, the mankind are able to expand their logic of information network through the use of mobile connectivity that leads to a creation of an internet of things (IoT). According to Mitew (2014), the term Internet of Things (IoT) coined in 1999 at the MIT Media Lab where it means physical objects connecting to the internet.

Without any attentiveness we tend to expose to IoT ubiquitously in our everday life, our mobile phone is the biggest invention of Internet of Things. The mobile phone has enable us to use various functions and conveniences that have speed up the quality of our life. Our mobile phone, which an object that store and process information as well as independently initiate action and can be remotely located within teir environment (Mitew, 2014). While using our mobile phone, it actually automatically adjust to an auto mode to disclose our location identity without our full observant. For instance, social applications like Facebook and Foursquare has enable us to ‘check-in’ wherever we are, as it automatically detects our own location. Also while we use Google Map or Waze, the application has automatically extracting details and information from our usage to the internet.

However, this smart invention has no doubt brought us a lot of benefits and advancement but it somehow relentlessly exploits to our privacy as the internet of things do all automatically. Mostly our information has uploaded into the internet automatically through the applications hence the internet has stock up big data of everything whether its important or useless. Nonetheless, does IoT is really helping us through our daily life or it unremittingly overpower the authority and supremacy of human? Can you imagine what the IoT can do to us in the near future?


Mitew, T 2014, ‘DIGC202 – The internet of things’, lecture notes, accessed 25/10/2014,


Cybercrime to Cyberwar

As discussed from the previous lecture, it is perhaps believable that the act of hacktivism has their very own peculiar motives and some are still remain unidentified of reasons. For instance, Julian Assange has live to his act of hacktivism where he aims to leak secret information to publish to the site called Wikileaks for the reason to attain the freedom of information, while Anonymous is a famously well-known group of hackers that hacks and publicly stunt the act of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) outbreaks on corporate, religious and government websites where their motive were remain vague.

The revolution of hacking has become more intense and terrifying as technology has grow to become more advance where hackings job can dip through every little corner and crook to get to their entry of purpose. Initially, the phenomena of hacking has start off with simple cybercrime where Mitew (2014) stressed the examples like stealing identity of credit cards, passports, Trojans, exploits, rootkits, botnets, phishing kits and credentials. According to Mitew (2014), hacker ethos define themselves as the don’t damage computer system break in and they don’t change the information in those system that share information. Hacker that now act on cybercrime are no longer that humble anymore hence the immoral cybercrime has now grown to more inferior where cyberwar occurs.

Mitew (2014) define the cyberwar activities as a type surveillance, subversion, hacking, impersonation, hardware attacks and exploits to certain organization’s site. Cyberwar is a beyond intimidating where data and information can be sabotage or espionage through the hack of stealing. One of the best example of cyberwar is the Israeli Air Force bombs Syrian in the year of 2007 where Israel had compromised the Syrian air defense system and placed a logic bomb in the system that will bomb at a certain time and the exact time they would be attacking (Yarosh, 2011).

Now we see how the internet technologies have drive our human’s life activities where there is no need a physical war but through just a click of button cyberwar could happen anytime.


Mitew, T 2014, ‘Dark fiber: Hackers, botnets, cyber war’, lecturer slides, accessed on 18/10/2014,

Yarosh, S 2007, ‘Cyber War Examples’, University of Pennsylvania, accessed on 18/10/2014,

Hackers of Heroes or Villains?

The present media technology revolution is the biggest creation and amusement of all to the mankind thus it is somehow terrifying in some circumstances. The internet and media can definitely accelerate our way of improvements in life being in terms of daily activities, businesses, science and technologies and even government authorized data and documents. Today, nodes are intelligent enough to overwhelm the power of code freedom to become cyber-libertarians or hardest it comes to the appearance of hacktivism. ‘Hacktivism’, as it is called, draws on the creative use of computer technology for the purposes of facilitating online protests, performing civil disobedience in cyberspace and disrupting the flow of information by deliberately intervening in the networks of global capital (Sterling, 2013).

According to Mitew (2014), the most conspicuous hacks were hacking into phone switches, network control mainframes of certain websites or corporation or more rampant to an extend into government server. The most well-known hacktivist has given to the name of Julian Assage whom invent the sphere of Wikileaks that it contributed a enormous impact to the realm of hacktivism. Sterling (2013), addressed that the Wikileaks Cablegate scandal is the most exciting and interesting hacker scandal ever. Wikileaks were an intelligent that leaks out voluminous of governmental data to the internet for uninhibited information to the public as an exploitation of transparency towards the diplomatic and political disputes. Conferring to Sterling (2013), Wikileaks has been the world’s most blatant, most publicly praised, encrypted underground site.

However, in the debate of hacktivism are contradictory among their peculiar motives and objectives themselves. Some have concrete reasons of doing hacking jobs and some are just plain hackings. Assange has worked and argued himself into a position where his “computer crimes” are mainly political. They’re probably not even crimes. They are “leaks.” Leaks are nothing special (Sterling, 2013). Probably, Assange are one of the hackers with his own purposes that gain many supports from the publics, however there are another famous hacker named Anonymous whom remain unidentified who vigorously hacked several important sites where the aims were still mysterious.

According to Gunkel (2005), initially the word denoted a kind of obsessive commitment to creative and innovative computer programming, especially the re-engineering of systems that pushed the relatively new technology of the computer in interesting directions which were oftentimes not anticipated or recognized by their designers. For this reason, hackers have been celebrated as the heroes of the computer revolution, the visionaries of the internet and the principle architects of cybersociety.

So the question still left to be indefinite, are hackers heroes or villains?


Gunkel, DJ, 2005. Editorial: introduction to hacking and hacktivism. New media & society, [Online].1-3. Available at: [Accessed 08 October 2014].

Mitew, T 2014, “Digital Resistance”, Lecturer notes, [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 October 2014].

Sterling, B, 2013. The Blast Shack. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 October 2014].

The Walk of Arab Spring through Citizen Journalism

The emergence of future journalism contradicts whether technologies can be actually certainly helpful to disseminate information conveniently and rapidly or either it is a threat to the credibility and stability of expediently obtain certain journalism news written by the existence of citizen journalism. The emerging current issues of citizen journalism for instance, the Arab Spring Revolution where how journalism revolves and affected in political movement and also the internet war.

The Arab Spring began on the early 1990’s where Arabian began to use Internet as an alternative way to voice up and challenge the autocratic regimes by opposing governmental censorship. The upheavals in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Libya, Algeria, Sudan and other parts of the Middle East and North Africa in 2011 became known as the Facebook revolution. This was one of the most interesting uses of citizen journalism to disseminate information. People were using their mobile telephones to record events, to take photographs, to videotape activities and release them to the world in a way that traditional media could not, because they had no access (Barnes, C, 2012).

The young group of activists are actively using blog, Twitter, Facebook and other social networks that sparked the massive wave of political change swept the Arab world and Internet usage among Arabian are massively increasing and then began to take advantage of it to participate on civic discourse. According to Seib (2007), Arab media, especially the opposition press, were being exploited by the autocratic ruling regimes as a platform for people to vent their angry feelings and resentment toward their authoritarian governments, instead of taking decisive steps in the direction of radical reform and transformation, thus substituting words for action. Citizen journalism from Arab Spring effectively use Internet to achieve their own political goals, educate political issues to Arabians and aspirations.

The contemporary internet and media has given a lot of accessibilities and advantages for the citizen journalism, for instance, by just a click away, information can be disseminate publicly and globally by the speediness of internet.In conclusion, the audiences and readers are too sophisticated on what information they obtain from the new media which also contributed to the growth of citizen journalism.


Barnes, C, 2012. Citizen Journalism vs. Traditional Journalism. A Case for Collaboration, [Online]. Vol. 58 Issue. 2/3, 16-27,179. Available at: accountid=15112 [ Accessed 6 October 2014].

Seib, P, 2009. New media and the new Middle East. Macmillan. [ Accessed 6 October 2014]

Citizen Journalism

According to Radsch (2011), defines citizen journalism “as an alternative and activist form of newsgathering and reporting that functions outside mainstream media institutions, often as a repose to the shortcomings in the professional journalistic field, that uses similar journalistic practices but is driven by different objectives and ideals and relies on alternative sources of legitimacy than traditional or mainstream journalism.

The emergence of advance new technology have a comparatively relationship to emergence of citizen journalism too. Now we it is inevitable for us exposed to citizen journalism in daily basis for assured, as we always wake up to various social networks to obtain regular day-to-day news and information. Furthermore, many internet users today are assumingly called as citizen journalist as we share and disseminate various types information that are able to gauge attention and interest large attention from groups of peoples.

Thus, citizen journalism are free to share ideas and opinions driven by own different objectives and however not train with professional skill of writing which found to become their first weakness point. However, the convenience of accessibility to the internet today has given the support of the opportunity to citizen journalism on this growing proportion. Internet users and readers are always fascinated with the latest news and hardly consider about the trustworthiness and reliability of the information that has been publicized, what they concern is the speediness of up to date trendy news.

There are various advantages of citizen journalism, just to name a few firstly, although citizen journalism publish news faster than traditional media whereby speed in reporting new stories were relieved by the advancement of internet hence they can post any information, photograph and videos instantaneously. For instance, video images that were broadcast across television screens about the tsunami in Japan would never have been seen by the world if citizens at the scene had not filmed it by witnesses whom significance to the citizen journalism (Abu AlFadel, 2011 ). Also, citizen journalism allows immediate two ways communication which allow responses and comments to be made in freedom within a post, share or discussion. Meaning that audience have freedom to freely express their views henceforth citizen journalism tend to have more honesty in news reporting. This may be due to the absence of censorship for the new media while the flow of information through traditional media is exposed to a lot of gatekeepers in addition to political and ethical constraints which hinder access of the media message to the public (Neuman, 2011).

There are discusses of disadvantages of citizen journalism too, as due to unprofessional and untrained skill, citizen journalism may loose honesty on writing news as they are free to write anything that favored to their own objectives. Hence, the write ups are based on audiences and readers receptiveness where it can largely serves the their special interests and therefore news by them may be lack of credibility. Furthermore, citizen journalism may cause and raise impact on the paradigm issues of political and governmental disputes. For instance, one of biggest impact affected by the emergence citizen journalism is the uprising political movement of Arab Spring.

In a nutshell, the advance of new technology innovations certainly contributes to the rising number of citizen journalism. Now, citizen journalism is driving their ways into new journalism although it is a new concept that also add values to the traditional media entity and however both medias are seek to achieve similar goals.


Abu Alfadel, M, 2011 Citizen Journalism : Arab revolutions media incentive, Middle East Newspaper, Issue 11832. Available at: [Accessed 28 September 2014].

Neuman, W. R., Bimbe, B. and Hindman, M, 2011. The Internet and Four Dimensions of Citizenship, The Oxford Handbook of American Public Opinion and the Media, Robert Y. Shapiro and Larwence R. Jacobs. (eds.) New York University Press. Available at: [Accessed 28 September 2014]

Radsch, C, 2011. Arab bloggers as citizen journalists (Transnational). In J. Downing (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social movement media. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Available at: [Accessed on 28 September  2014]

Fruit VS Robot


The new iPhone 6 and iPhone6 plus has just released close to a week ago and it still capture the heart of countless loyal customers and perhaps a sum of unsatisfied customers phone users from other brands. Still, arguments and criticism are constantly disputing from all sorts of nodes/produser that stretches from their very own interpretations and remarks. One of the condemnation commentary on iPhone is the opposing user criticizes in what way iPhone’s operating system, design and interface are so poorly designed and customized thus it outlay an extremely high-priced, which is totally not value for money.

Arguments in terms of the price of Apple smartphone is overprice as many other smartphones could compete with the functions offer by Apple moreover Apple architected a closed platform which is their prominent iOS operating system. Apple’s iOS is differ from other platforms for instance, Android distributed operating system which allows customization and can be match by various types of smart phone devices rather one but because of it is a democratic usages which disburse more error and fault of hacks of its no control over the platform, users and content compare to Apple’s iOS. Moreover, since Android is a type of open source operating system therefore there are many creation of prevailing demo version or better known as Beta version before the final version of the new operating system officially release.

However, there are reason why Apple happened to be closed and walled garden platform which it is aimed to have a complete control over the platform, content and user to avoid faults and hackers to interfere the platform. Furthermore, it is Apple’s core business to customize closed appliances tethered to closed ecosystem as the co-founder of Apple Inc. Steve Jobs whom discovered and believe on user’s experience. Still, there are various of contradictory within the pros and cons of both open versus closed platform. Nonetheless, it is still depends on user’s preferences to either fancy for an open platform Android or close walled garden Apple iOS. They still walkouts and conquers undeniable unique propositions for best of both world!

Digital Feudalism; Contemporary Walled- Garden

Consequently, the creation of internet has allowed us to interact freely and unlimited consumptions that effortlessness and benefit ease the life of the general public. We, as internet users thought that the internet for instance social networks and applications that obligate to offer us freedom and privacy contained platform that we are ubiquitously attach and put trust in it.

However, the biggest and nevertheless favorite internet corporation for instance Facebook and Apple have actually installed and practices Walled-Garden Feudalism on it’s platform to control user’s to their contents and services. Without the majority user’s aware, walled garden is a type of system that have subsequently control fully and easily access on restricting users to several applications and productions of content. In effect, the walled garden directs the user’s initial navigation within particular areas, to allow access to a selection of material, or prevent access to other material (Rouse 2005).

Hence, through the unawareness within users, this corporations have developed to become big user-generated data assemblies, then eventually turn out to be to feudal lords to holds as an integrated data-empire. User’s believed there were no any parties over their privacy and contents as they comprehend it as a type of liberty platform. Unfortunately, many internet corporations have built a new form of digital feudalism that became kind of feudal lords which means they behold the hierarchal power that possess to your privacy. The old internet is shrinking and being replaced by walled gardens over which Google’s crawlers cannot climb. Sure, Google can crawl Facebook’s ‘public pages’, but those represent a tiny fraction of the pages on Facebook, and are not informed by the crucial signals of identity and relationship which give those pages meaning (Mitew, 2014).

In a nutshell, the internet users should be smart to use the internet platforms as apparently we do not know when are we being monitored or how our privacy are being watched. So, use the internet wisely as there are more surveillance through the rise of a new form of digital feudalism.


Feudalism 2005, ‘A brief history of the idea’, Dictionary of the History of Idea, accessed 13/9/2014,

Mitew, T 2014, DIGC202-The Feudalisation of the Internet, lecture notes, accessed 13/9/2014,

Rouse, M 2005, “Walled Garden”,viewed 1 May 2013, retrieved from